During the last 25 years, the Colombian competition agency has actively enforced antitrust laws in the agricultural sector. It is the antitrust authority in Latin America that has prosecuted the highest number of cases in agricultural markets. However, in Colombia, the enforcement of competition law has also collided with governmental mechanisms used to intervene these markets. This article traces the tensions between antitrust law and agricultural policies in Colombia, discusses how government agencies addressed these tensions, and explains the most common competition concerns of agricultural value chains that emerged in the competition authority’s decisions.