Despite relatively low concentration of food processing and retail, Poland’s agricultural sector is characterized by large imbalances in bargaining power. Early enforcement of unfair trade practices regulation unveiled a plethora of questionable practices on all levels of the supply chain. Placing the new powers with the Competition Authority shortened the learning period and generated significant case law in a short time span. This allowed for a fine-tuning of the regulation after only 2 years since its adoption. The paper describes the structure of Poland’s agricultural and food supply sectors and discusses the origins of UTP regulation. It also provides insights on the interplay of UTP rules with competition law.