Recent Developments in the Enforcement of Turkish Competition Law: Fines and Leniency Regulation

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Jun 12, 2009 In February 2008, an amendment in “The Act on the Protection of Competition” (the Act) substantially changed the enforcement policy of Turkish Competition Board (“the Board”) by providing effective tools such as leniency and sanctions against individuals. In line with […]

Alitalia Government Interventionism, The Road to Recovery?

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Giovanni Cifelli, Philippe Noguès, May 18, 2009 On December 3, 2008, the Italian competition authority (the”ICA”) authorized the merger between Compagnia Aerea Italiana (“CAI”), a new Italian company incorporated in order to acquire most of the passenger-related assets of Alitalia, and AirOne, the […]

Margins of Appreciation: Changing Contours in Community and Domestic Case Law

Vivien Rose, Apr 30, 2009 This article considers the circumstances in which a court, faced with a challenge to a decision taken by a primary decision-maker, accords a margin of appreciation to that decision-maker by limiting the intensity of its review. It compares the concept of the margin of appreciation as applied by the Community […]

Sweden Launches an Amended Competition Act: Providing further alignment with Community law, new merger thresholds, and introducing a disqualification order regime for cartel infringements

AmenasdfThis article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Emil Fahlen-Godo, Per Karlsson, Aug 27, 2008 On November 1, 2008, Sweden’s amended Competition Act (SFS 2008:579) (“2008 Competition Act”) will come into force. The country’s current Competition Act (SFS 1993:20) (“1993 Competition Act”) entered into force on July 1, 1993 and since […]

Competition Policy in Poland

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Margorzata Krasnodebska-Tomkiel, Aug 26, 2008 Poland created a post-communist competition law system in 1990. The system is based on a public enforcement agency named the Office for Competition and Consumer Protection which is part of a governmental administration. The President heads the OCCP […]

The New Spanish Competition System

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Carlos Pascual Pons, Jul 10, 2008 The new Spanish Competition Act, which was unanimously approved by the Spanish Parliament and came into force on the first of September 2007, introduces significant modifications to the system applied to date. This Act builds on the […]

Information Exchange in the Italian Insurance Market in the Framework of the EU BER

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Alessandra Tonazzi, May 27, 2008 It is generally recognized that information sharing can produce pro-competitive effects in markets characterized by information asymmetries, by reducing uncertainty and competitive risks. When, as it is the case in the insurance market, firms do not know their […]

Microsoft (EC) and Duty to Deal: Exceptionality and the Transatlantic Divide

Eleanor Fox, Apr 24, 2008 This article examines Microsoft´s offense in withholding full information to its workgroup server operating systems rivals so that they could not interoperate with Microsoft´s systems as seamlessly as Microsoft could. This article agrees with John Vicker´s observation that the Court stretched each of the Magill/IMS criteria defining circumstances so exceptional […]

French Competition Council vs. GSK France: who is the predator?

This article is part of a Chronicle. See more from this Chronicle Jeremy de Douhet, Axel Schulz, Jun 14, 2007 This article was originally published in Competition Policy Insight. It is republished here with permission. On 14 March 2007 the French Competition Council issued a decision imposing a EUR 10 million fine on GlaxoSmithKline France […]

Retail Payments and Card Use in the Netherlands: Pricing, Scale, and Antitrust

Wilko Bolt, Apr 19, 2007 Efficient payment systems are essential components of well-functioning economies and financial markets, facilitating the exchange of goods, services, and assets. The speed and ease with which payments can be processed and executed will in general affect economic activities, output, and price levels. Therefore it is important that payment systems satisfy […]