BThe most recent wave of consolidation in agricultural biotechnology has sharply reduced the number of rivals from the “Big 6” to the “Big 3.” This level of consolidation, and resulting high concentration, in markets for genetic traits, genetically modified crop seed, and crop protection raises novel and significant issues for growers and consumers. These revolve around the effects of high concentration on innovation and the shift in the competition paradigm from rivalry at individual levels to competition between highly integrated, proprietary cropping systems that are fueled by ongoing acquisitions of digital farming assets. As the competitive effects of the latest round of mega-mergers unfold for growers and consumers, a key question is how antitrust enforcers will respond in addressing higher prices, less innovation, and risks to the security and diversity of the food supply system.