The Autorité de la Concurrence has fined 11 French producer groups for endives for setting minimum prices. The growers were fined 3.65 million euros (approximately $4.8 million) for colluding to fix prices from 1998 to 2012. Their actions included compulsory destruction of produce and a computer system used to exchange real-time price information. In addition, seven industry associations and unions were fined 320,000 euros for their role.
Endives are the fourth-most consumed vegetable in France. France is the biggest grower of endives in the European Union.
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