Mixed Messages in the “By Object” vs “By Effects” Saga: The Enigma of Lundbeck

February 2018

CPI Europe Column edited by Anna Tzanaki (Competition Policy International) & Juan Delgado (Global Economics Group) presents:

Mixed Messages in the “By Object” vs “By Effects” Saga: The Enigma of Lundbeck By Peter Alexiadis and Pablo Figueroa[1]

  1. Introduction

It is well understood that Article 101(1) TFEU prohibits concerted practices or agreements which have the “object or effect” of restricting competition. Once it has been established that the object of an agreement is to restrict competition, it is irrelevant, for the purposes of determining whether…

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