Since the enactment of the Anti-monopoly Law (“AML”) in 2008, China’s AML enforcement has gained momentum, especially over the past three years. This development makes China one of the most important jurisdictions to which the companies need to pay close attention. 2016 was an intensive year for the NDRC. Looking back, the NDRC’s work mainly focused on i) AML enforcement against monopoly behavior by undertakings, ii) AML enforcement against abuse of administrative power by government and the introduction of the fair competition review system; and iii) promulgation of six antitrust guidelines. In light of the NDRC’s efforts in 2016, the authors present their speculation of the NDRC’s enforcement priorities in year 2017 and the future.