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Competing for Free

Competing for Free

A feature of many digital platforms is that they offer services to one side of the platform “for free.” In some instances, the business...
When “Free” Is Not “Free”

When “Free” Is Not “Free”

Consumers on the Internet routinely give away data — information about their habits, preferences, purchasing patterns, contacts and more — in return for “free”...
Monetary Remedies for Zero-Price Privacy Regulation: An Economic Perspective

Monetary Remedies for Zero-Price Privacy Regulation: An Economic Perspective

Zero-price goods and services potentially create a problem for regulators interested in crafting monetary remedies that are deterrent, efficient, and inexpensive to implement in...
Free Isn’t Free: Digital Platform Data Practices and Australia’s Unfolding Regulatory Response

Free Isn’t Free: Digital Platform Data Practices and Australia’s Unfolding Regulatory...

Since the release of its Digital Platforms Inquiry Final Report in 2019, the ACCC has continued to be active in investigating digital platform market...
Free as Air?

Free as Air?

“Free” once had a simple meaning – something without constraint whatsoever, as in “free as air.” At times, some have suggested that antitrust enforcement...
Personal Data as a Price in Market Definition: A Brief Assessment

Personal Data as a Price in Market Definition: A Brief Assessment

Services offered by Google, Facebook, and their kin are not truly free: users contribute to the monetization of the platform. The question is not...

Why Some Platform Businesses Face Many Frivolous Antitrust Complaints and What...

David Evans, Dec 20, 2012 In the last decade a number of internet-based multi-sided platforms have emerged that provide free services to, in some cases,...
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