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Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Following Google Shopping, competition authorities in Europe – supported by a flurry of reports on digital competition – have wasted little time establishing self-preferencing...
Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid differentiation occurs when a platform discriminates among businesses in a related market in which it is not active itself with the aim to...
Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and Beyond?)

Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and...

The growth of digital platforms has focused the minds of policymakers and competition authorities across the world on whether stricter enforcement is required against...
What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

In recent times, self-preferencing by digital platforms has come to the fore. While it is normal for companies to promote their own products over...
Digital Platforms and Self-Preferencing

Digital Platforms and Self-Preferencing

Due to their global economic significance and their attitude to concentrating economic power, digital platforms have triggered an unprecedented competition policy debate, fragmented and...
Self-Preferencing: A German Perspective

Self-Preferencing: A German Perspective

Prohibiting self-preferencing should remain the exception. Under current law, the non-discrimination rule in Article 102(c) TFEU is arguably only applicable to self-preferencing in cases...
The EU Google Decisions: Extreme Enforcement or the Tip of The Behavioral Iceberg?

The EU Google Decisions: Extreme Enforcement or the Tip of The...

The recent EU Google decisions may represent a high-water mark for the use of behavioral economics in EU antitrust to date, but what do...

Europe Hits Google With Massive $2.7 Billion Fine

The European Union's competition watchdog slapped a record 2.42 billion euro (US $2.72 billion) fine on internet giant Google on Tuesday for breaching antitrust...

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