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Law

Self-Preferencing and the Level Playing Field

By: Ramsi Woodcock (What Am I Missing?) I, too, have been enamored of sports metaphors in antitrust. How can the level playing field not convince? Two wrestlers meet...
Self-Preferencing Antitrust Harmful Solutions

Self-Preferencing and Antitrust: Harmful Solutions for an Improbable Problem

Platforms, including vertically integrated platforms, are ubiquitous — both in the modern economy, and throughout history. While some such firms have managed to capture...
Self-Preferencing Violate Section 2 Sherman Act

How Self-Preferencing Can Violate Section 2 of the Sherman Act

Self-preferencing occurs when a firm unfairly modifies its operations to privilege its own, another firm’s, or a set of firms’ products or services. Extensive...
Regulating Digital Ads: Is a Global Approach the Way Forward for Japan and Other Advanced Economies?

Regulating Digital Ads: Is a Global Approach the Way Forward for...

This article addresses the problem of the regulation of digital advertising in Japan from a comparative and global perspective. There are a number of...
Gatekeepers’ Tollbooths for Market Access: How to Safeguard Unbiased Intermediation

Gatekeepers’ Tollbooths for Market Access: How to Safeguard Unbiased Intermediation

Gatekeepers may seek to maximize revenues by replacing any unbiased, purely relevance-based intermediation of business users with a biased, payment-based intermediation. To this end,...
Google

Google’s (Non-) Compliance with the EU Shopping Decision

By Thomas Hoppner (Technical University Wildau) On 27 July 2017, the European Commission adopted a decision finding that, between January 2008 and 27 July 2017,...
Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Following Google Shopping, competition authorities in Europe – supported by a flurry of reports on digital competition – have wasted little time establishing self-preferencing...
Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid differentiation occurs when a platform discriminates among businesses in a related market in which it is not active itself with the aim to...
Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and Beyond?)

Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and...

The growth of digital platforms has focused the minds of policymakers and competition authorities across the world on whether stricter enforcement is required against...
What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

In recent times, self-preferencing by digital platforms has come to the fore. While it is normal for companies to promote their own products over...
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