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Regulating Digital Ads: Is a Global Approach the Way Forward for Japan and Other Advanced Economies?

Regulating Digital Ads: Is a Global Approach the Way Forward for...

This article addresses the problem of the regulation of digital advertising in Japan from a comparative and global perspective. There are a number of...
Gatekeepers’ Tollbooths for Market Access: How to Safeguard Unbiased Intermediation

Gatekeepers’ Tollbooths for Market Access: How to Safeguard Unbiased Intermediation

Gatekeepers may seek to maximize revenues by replacing any unbiased, purely relevance-based intermediation of business users with a biased, payment-based intermediation. To this end,...
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Google’s (Non-) Compliance with the EU Shopping Decision

By Thomas Hoppner (Technical University Wildau) On 27 July 2017, the European Commission adopted a decision finding that, between January 2008 and 27 July 2017,...
Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Self-Preferencing: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Following Google Shopping, competition authorities in Europe – supported by a flurry of reports on digital competition – have wasted little time establishing self-preferencing...
Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid Differentiation and Competition Beyond Markets

Hybrid differentiation occurs when a platform discriminates among businesses in a related market in which it is not active itself with the aim to...
Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and Beyond?)

Self-Preferencing – Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty for the Digital Economy (and...

The growth of digital platforms has focused the minds of policymakers and competition authorities across the world on whether stricter enforcement is required against...
What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

What Shall We Do About Self-Preferencing?

In recent times, self-preferencing by digital platforms has come to the fore. While it is normal for companies to promote their own products over...
Self-Preferencing – Some Observations on the Push for Legislation at the National Level in Germany

Self-Preferencing – Some Observations on the Push for Legislation at the...

While the debate on self-preferencing as a possible abuse of dominance under EU law is ongoing, various expert reports on antitrust enforcement in the...
Digital Platforms and Self-Preferencing

Digital Platforms and Self-Preferencing

Due to their global economic significance and their attitude to concentrating economic power, digital platforms have triggered an unprecedented competition policy debate, fragmented and...
Self-Preferencing: A German Perspective

Self-Preferencing: A German Perspective

Prohibiting self-preferencing should remain the exception. Under current law, the non-discrimination rule in Article 102(c) TFEU is arguably only applicable to self-preferencing in cases...

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