By Svetlana Avdasheva

Competition enforcement towards digital platforms in Russia concentrates on the issues of multi-homing for inter-platform competition (competition between digital platforms) and non-discriminatory access for intra-platform competition (competition on digital platforms). Both in antitrust enforcement (Google-2015 and Microsoft-2017 cases in Russia) and under merger approval (Bayer/Monsanto-2018 and Uber/Yandex-2017) theory of harm is based on both anticompetitive exclusionary effects and exploitative effects in adjacent markets. Typical remedies are “non-discriminator

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