• The following document sets out guidelines for submissions to Competition Policy International (whether they be for the Antitrust Chronicle, CPI Columns, book publications, or otherwise).
    • These Guidelines are general in scope (i.e. they may not cover all scenarios of usage), but should be adhered to when submitting any work to CPI, with the expectation that that usage will be reviewed by the editorial team.
    • The Guidelines respecting citation style are applicable both to books, Columns, and Chronicle Articles. Similarly, the formatting style that accompanies this book is applicable to both.


    • Chronicle articles – 2500-4000 words.
    • CPI Columns – 1500-3000 words (with some flexibility). Endnotes instead of footnotes.
    • CPI Book contributions – 2500 words or longer.


    • The following instructions are intended to guide authors to ensure consistent style. Note, however, that these instructions are not exhaustive. In general, the Chicago Manual of Style should be followed for the main text and the Bluebook is followed for the footnotes. If you require further guidance please email chronicle@competitionpolicyinternational.com.
    • Submissions do not require a bibliography.
    • American English should be followed. As a result, a “z” should be used where a word can be spelled with either a “z” or “s.”

Example: “organize,” “harmonization,” etc.

    • Except for CPI Columns, all articles should be accompanied by an abstract of 100 to 200 words.
    • The main text of the article should be in Times New Roman, 12-point font, 1.5 spaced and justified.
    • All articles should use footnotes rather than endnotes (except for Columns). Footnotes should be in Times New Roman, 10-point font, single spaced and left-aligned.
    • Footnote numbers in the main text should be placed after the punctuation.

Example: “Antitrust laws protect competition, not competitors.”1

    • When cross-referencing another footnote, id. (immediately above), supra (above) and infra (below) should be used. If supra and infra are used, the last name of the author or authors (or part of the title where there are no authors) should be used to assist in identifying the footnote that is being referred to.

Example: Posner, supra note 9, at 99.

    • One space should be used after a period.
    • Quotations should be contained in double quotation marks (“”). Punctuation following a quotation should be placed within the quotation marks.


correct: “Antitrust laws protect competition, not competitors.”

incorrect: “Antitrust laws protect competition, not competitors”.

    • Quotations that are 50 words or more should be set off as block quotations.


In delivering remarks at the 4th Annual Antitrust Law Forum, Assistant Attorney General William Baer stated:

We must remember our mission. It is about effective law enforcement. I recoil at the suggestion that antitrust equates to regulation. That is not what we do. And it is not how we ought to think about what we do. Our work is to use our statutory authority to remove restraints on competition and prevent behavior or consolidation that risks limiting competition.

    • When a word is abbreviated, it should be initially presented in parentheses and quotation marks.

Example: Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”)

    • Abbreviations for commonly used States and territories, such as the U.S. and EU, do not need to be initially presented in parentheses.
    • If a state or territory is abbreviated using periods in official case names then the periods should be retained, only when reporting the case name.

Example: U.S. and Plaintiff States v. American Express Co., et al.

    • The United States should be spelled out in full when being used as a noun.
    • When capitalizing titles and subtitles, the first and last words and all major words (i.e. words that are not articles, conjunctions or prepositions) should be capitalized.

Example: Counting Merger Efficiencies Inside and Out of the Relevant Market

    • Proper nouns that refer to specific people, places and things should be capitalized. “Member State” should be capitalized when referring to a member of the EU.
    • The following should be italicized: (1) emphasized words; (2) case names; and (3) foreign words (i.e. vis-à-vis). Commonly used Latin abbreviations, such as “i.e.” and “e.g.” and Latin words used in legal writing, such as ex post, ex ante, ad hoc and amicus curiae.
    • For figures and tables, the style (i.e. space, indentation, font, etc.) should be consistent between each figure or table and, when possible, consistent with the main text.


    • As stated above, citations should be drafted in accordance with the Bluebook Rules.
    • For ease of reference, the following are examples of commonly used citation forms:
      • Articles from Books: David J. Gerber, Asia and Competition Law Convergence, in ASIAN CAPITALISM AND THE REGULATION OF COMPETITION 36 (Michael W. Dowdle et al. eds., 2013).
      • Articles from Journals: David S. Evans, The Antitrust Economics of Multi-Sided Platform Markets, 20 YALE J. REG. 325, 367-70 (2003).
      • Working Papers: Andrei Hagiu & Julian Wright, Marketplace or reseller? (Harvard Business School, Working Paper No. 13-092, 2013).
      • Newspapers: Charles Arthur & Samuel Gibbs, The hidden costs of building an Android device, THE GUARDIAN, Jan. 23, 2014.
      • Speeches: Deborah Platt Majoras, Chairwoman, Fed. Trade Comm’n, Convergence, Conflict, and Comity: The Search for Coherence in International Competition Policy, Remarks at the 34th Annual Conference on International Antitrust Law & Policy (Sept. 27, 2007).
      • Press Releases: Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Justice Department Requires Divestitures in Order for United Technologies Corporation to Proceed with its Acquisition of Goodrich Corporation (July 26, 2012).
      • Cases: National Bancard Corp. (NaBanco) v. VISA U.S.A., Inc., 779 F.2d 592 (11th Cir. 1986).
      • Statutes: Sherman Act, 26 Stat. 209, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1–7.
      • Online Sources: Carlos Mena-Labarthe et. al., The end of leniency programs in the Andean Region?, CPI LATIN AMERICAN COLUMN (April 18, 2018), https://www.competitionpolicyinternational.com/the-end-of-leniency-programs-in-the-andrean-region/.


Headings and subheadings should take the following form:


A.     Treatment of Out-of-Market Efficiencies in the United States

    1. Treatment of Out-of-Market Efficiencies by the Federal Courts

The US Supreme Court first addressed the role of out-of-market efficiencies in evaluating whether a merger violated Section 7 of the Clayton Act over half a century ago.

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